Broad-spectrum antibiotic. Antibiotic-azalide, a representative of a new subgroup of macrolide antibiotics. When creating in inflammation in high concentrations has a bactericidal effect.
Azithromycin To a sensitive Gram-positive cocci: Streptococcus pneumoniae, St. pyogenes, St. agalactiae, Streptococcus groups CF and G, Staphylococcus aureus, St. viridans; Gram-negative bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, Legionella pneumophila, H. ducrei, Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Gardnerella vaginalis; Some anaerobic microorganisms: Bacteroides bivius, Clostridium perfringens, Peptostreptococcus spp; and Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Treponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdoferi. Azithromycin is inactive against Gram-positive bacteria resistant to erythromycin.
Suction. Azithromycin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, due to its stability in an acidic medium and lipophilicity. After oral administration of 500 mg Azithromycin azithromycin maximum concentration in plasma is reached after 2.5 hours, -2.96 and 0.4 mg / l. Bioavailability is 37% (UK).
Distribution in the UK.
Azithromycin well into the respiratory tract, genitourinary organs and tissues (in particular in the prostate gland), the skin and soft tissue. The high concentration in tissues (10-50 times higher than in blood plasma) and a long half-life of azithromycin due to low binding to plasma proteins, and its ability to penetrate into eukaryotic cells and concentrated in a low pH environment, environmental lysosomes. This, in turn, defines a large apparent volume of distribution (31.1 l / kg) and high plasma clearance. The ability of azithromycin to accumulate mainly in lysosomes is particularly important to eliminate intracellular pathogens. It proved that phagocytes deliver azithromycin localization of infection sites where it is released in the process of phagocytosis. The concentration of azithromycin in the foci of infection was significantly higher than in healthy tissue (on average 24-34%) and correlated with the degree of inflammatory edema. Despite the high concentration in phagocytes, azithromycin has no significant effect on their function.
Azithromycin remains in bactericidal concentrations of inflammation within 5-7 days after the last dose, which allowed the development of short (3-day and 5-day) courses of treatment.
Excretion of azithromycin from plasma passes in 2 stages: half-life of 14-20 hours in the range of 8 to 24 hours after dosing, and 41 h - in the range from 24 to 72 hours, which allows for preparation 1 time / day.
Indications established by experts from the UK
Infectious diseases caused by pathogens susceptible to the drug: infections of the upper respiratory tract and upper respiratory tract - tonsillitis, sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils / glands /), otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear cavity); scarlet fever; infections of the lower respiratory tract - bacterial and atypical pneumonia (pneumonia), bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi); infections of skin and soft tissue -rozha, impetigo (a superficial pustular skin lesions with the formation of purulent crusts), secondarily infected dermatitis (skin disease); urinary tract infections - and gonorrheal negonoreyny urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) and / or cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix); Lyme disease (borreliosis - an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia).